SMART DUST

Like an ordinary dust  particle, Smart Dust will remain suspended in the environment acting like electronic nerve endings for the planet, monitoring almost everything on earth. Smart Dust is a concept originated out of a research project by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Research And Development Corporation (RAND) in the early 1990s. Smart Dust is made of “motes” which are tiny sensors that can perform a variety of functions. They are made of “microeletromechanical systems” known as MEMS.

The goal of the Smart Dust project is to build a self-contained, millimeter-scale sensing and communication platform for a massively distributed sensor network. This device will be around the size of a grain of sand and will contain sensors, computational ability, bi-directional wireless communications, and a power supply, while being inexpensive enough to deploy by the hundreds. The science and engineering goal of the project is to build a complete, complex system in a tiny volume using state-of-the art technologies, which will require evolutionary and revolutionary advances in integration, miniaturization, and energy management. We foresee many applications for this technology: Weather/seismological monitoring on Mars, Internal spacecraft monitoring, Land/space comm. Networks, Chemical/biological sensors, Weapons stockpile monitoring, Defense-related sensor networks, Inventory Control, Product quality monitoring, Smart office spaces, Sports – sailing, balls.

The main object of the Smart Dust project is used to demonstrate that a complete sensor/communication system can be integrated into a cubic millimeter package.  This involves both evolutionary and revolutionary advances in miniaturization, integration, and energy management.

 

 

THE GPS Technology

GPS Technology

THE GPS Technology

Throughout time people have developed a variety of ways to figure out their position on earth and to navigate from one place to another. Early mariners relied on angular measurements to celestial bodies like sun and stars to calculate their location. The 1920s witnessed the introduction of more advanced technique-radio navigation-based at first on radios that allowed navigators to locate the direction of shore-based transmitters when in range. Later development of artificial satellites made possible the transmission of more precise, line of sight radio navigation signals and sparked a new era in navigation technology. Satellites are first used in position finding in a simple but reliable 2D Navy system called Transit. This laid the groundwork for a system that would later revolutionize navigation for ever-the Global Positioning System.. Continue reading “THE GPS Technology”

The SIDAC

The SIDAC is a silicon bilateral voltage triggered switch with greater power handling capabilities than standard DIACs.

The SIDAC, or SIlicon Diode for Alternating Current, is a semiconductor of the thyristor family. Also referred to as a SYDAC (Silicon thYristor for Alternating Current), bi-directional thyristor breakover diode, or more simply a bi-directional thyristor diode, is technically specified as a bilateral voltage triggered switch. Its operation is identical to that of the DIAC; the distinction in naming between the two devices being subject to the particular manufacturer. In general, SIDACs have higher breakover voltages and current handling capacities than DIACs. The working of SIDAC is similar to a DIAC used as pulse generators in Triac controlled devices. It is similar to a Triac without gate and is a five layered device. Since the SIDAC handles much current, it can be used to switch on a device and not like the triggering in DIAC. Continue reading “The SIDAC”

Portable Fuel Cell

Portable fuel cell

Commercialisation –catalysing the industry. Electricity is becoming as much a problem in the 21st century as it was a solution in the 19th and 20th centuries. Global demand for electrical energy is increasing, in areas as diverse as mobile phones and household lighting, driven by the basic power needs of emerging economies and ever increasing consumer demand for electronics. We are using more power than ever, and our existing sources are starting to feel the strain. Fuel cells should be the answer to some of these power problems, providing effectively limitless run-times at a reasonable price. Recent technological advances have brought this 1830s power technology into the spotlight once more with reduced costs, better performance and higher reliability. Continue reading “Portable Fuel Cell”

FireWire

Along with USB, Firewire (also called IEEE 1394) is another popular connector for adding peripherals to your computer.

Originally created by Apple and standardized in 1995 as the specification IEEE 1394 High Performance Serial Bus, FireWire is very similar to Universal Serial Bus (USB). Also known as i.Link or IEEE 1394 is a personal computer (and digital audio/digital video) serial bus interface standard, offering high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data services. FireWire has replaced Parallel SCSI in many applications due to lower implementation costs and a simplified, more adaptable cabling system.  FireWire is most often used to connect digital camcorders, external hard drives, and other devices that can benefit from the high transfer rates supported by the Firewire connection. The iSight camera used for chatting on the Mac connects using a Firewire cable. In addition to connecting peripherals such as camcorders or external hard drives, FireWire can also be used to connect two computers to transfer files.. Continue reading “FireWire”

What is Bluetooth Technology?

Bluetooth technology

Bluetooth is a current industry standard for short-range wireless connectivity. Bluetooth technology is widely used in consumer electronics for short-range wireless data transfer, like printers and digital cameras. It operates efficiently within the range of 20-25 ft in the environment without WLAN equipments. Bluetooth signals operate in the same frequency range as WI-FI (802.11b, g) standard. This is the biggest disadvantage of it because of its interference with WI-FI signals. A Bluetooth enabled device is not being able to function efficiently in the vicinity of WI-FI signals. Bluetooth technology took many years to come into mass market but still is struggling to really prove its potentials. Bluetooth faces major challenges by upcoming Ultra-Wideband standard which has many advantages such as higher data-rate and capability to co-exist with other wireless standards.

Continue reading “What is Bluetooth Technology?”

What Is Bit-Banging?

Bit-banging is a method of using general-purpose I/O lines to emulate a serial port. Microcontrollers that include serial-port modules like SPI[tm] and I2C[tm] manage all synchronization and timing signals, and this activity is transparent to the user. With bit-banging each write to the port causes a single transition at the port pin. And it’s up to the user, first, to provide the correct number of transitions to obtain the desired waveform and, second, to ensure that the timing requirements (particularly setup and hold times for reading and writing data) are met. Continue reading “What Is Bit-Banging?”