Bird’s flu

Avian influenza or Bird Flu is a viral infection that can infect not only birds, but also humans and other animals. Most forms of the virus are restricted to birds.

Is bird flu Bird’s flu? Of course, like humans, birds also get flu and is known as “avian influenza”. It is caused by viruses that infect birds and make them ill. It is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of the influenza virus. The virus is spread when wild birds pass the virus along to birds such as chickens or ducks that are being raised for human consumption. While the wild birds do not seem to be affected by the virus, the livestock that contract the virus get very sick and many die.

Avian influenza A viruses are classified into the following two categories: low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses. There are 16 different avian flu types. The H5N1 strain is the one that causes the most concern, because it is the most virulent; the deadliest. Continue reading “Bird’s flu”

Cancer what is it really…………

Cancer cells have an asymmetrically-shaped nucleus that is larger than normal, resulting in the reduced presence of cytoplasm within the cell.

What is It really???

After heart disease, cancer is the most dangerous disease of mankind. Early detection of cancer can greatly improve the odds of successful treatment and survival. Cancer is characterized by out-of-control cell growth. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected. It harms the body when the cells divide uncontrollably to form masses of tissues called tumors. These cells don’t die, i.e. they don’t follow an orderly path of growth, division and death. Continue reading “Cancer what is it really…………”

The Art Of Hiding Information ( Steganography )

Steganography Techniques

Steganography serves as a means for private, secure and sometimes malicious communication. Steganography is a technology that hides a message within an object, a text, or a picture. It is often confused with cryptography, not in name but in appearance and usage. The easiest way to differentiate the two is to remember steganography conceals not only the contents of the message but also the mere existence of a message. The original steganographic applications used “null ciphers”, or clear text. A null cipher conveys that the message has not been encrypted in any way,whether it is using basic character shifting, substitution or advanced modern day encryption algorithm. So, the message is often in plain view but for a reason can either not be detected as being present or cannot be seen once detected. As is common with cryptography, steganography has its roots in military and government applications and has advanced in ingenuity and complexity. We will explore several approaches to the process of steganography as well as steganalysis. Steganalysis is the method by which to detect the presence of a hidden message and attempt to reveal the true contents of this message. This technology has also substantially evolved throughout history and often lags behind new steganographic discovery as a reactive attempt to detect and decipher messages. Continue reading “The Art Of Hiding Information ( Steganography )”

Hybrid Bike

Electric-Petrol Hybrid” technology

Helloo, everyone out there, I found this news in EFY site . It’s great  if somebody develop this kind of things. It will help future generation to grow well. This wonder bike of 120cc capacity is likely to go on sale in May 2010. Bengaluru-based Eko Vehicles has launched the world’s first hybrid motorcycle called the ET-120. Developed in collaboration with US-based Emerging Vehicle Technologies, the ET-120 model is expected to go on sale in May 2010. The ET-120 is the first hybrid two-wheeler, that comes fitted with an electric motor and a 70cc petrol engine. Continue reading “Hybrid Bike”

Apple to Cut Its Mac Computer Prices

Apple

‘Cuts are reportedly in store, both first desktop and laptop lines.’

Faced with slumping sales and stinging criticism from competitor Microsoft over its high prices, Apple is reportedly going to try a price cut to spur its computer sales.  While Apple’s general sales have been saved by its iPhone, its computer sales, both for laptops and desktops have slumped.  It is still earning more profit than some competitors thanks to large profit margins, but as losses continue, the company is becoming increasingly concerned. Continue reading “Apple to Cut Its Mac Computer Prices”

Chandrayaan -1

India’s first mission to Moon

“THE MOON” with the history of the early solar system etched on it beckons mankind from time immemorial to admire its marvels and discover its secrets. Understanding the moon provides a pathway to unravel the early evolution of the solar system and that of the planet earth. Continue reading “Chandrayaan -1”

History of Radar

Several inventors, scientists, and engineers contributed to the development of radar which played an important role in the Allied victory in World War II… But how many of us Know What does “RADAR” stands for? The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym for “Radio Detection and Ranging”. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A transmitter emits radio waves, which are reflected by the target and detected by a receiver, typically in the same location as the transmitter. Although the radio signal returned is usually very weak, radio signals can easily be amplified. This enables a radar to detect objects at ranges where other emissions, such as sound or visible light, would be too weak to detect. Radar is used in many contexts, including meteorological detection of precipitation, air traffic control, police detection of speeding traffic, and by the military. It was originally called “RDF” (Radio Direction Finder) in Britain.

In 1842, Christian Johann Doppler, an Austrian physicist and astronomer wrote a paper on the determination of motion using the frequency of light in the study of the movement of stars. His theory named the Doppler Principle, the concept defining how radar determines speed, became the foundation for radar development many years later. In 1888, German physicist Heinrich Hertz while demonstrating James Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Equations using using radio waves discovered that radio waves could be bounced off metallic objects. The potential utility of Hertz’s work as the basis for the detection of targets of practical interest did not go unnoticed at the time.

In 1897, Russian scientist Alexander Popov reported the detection of a warship “Lieutenant Il’in” when it crossed the radio communication link between two other ships “Europe” and “Africa”. This observation was the first mention about the possibility of object detection by means of radio waves. The first to use radio waves to detect “the presence of distant metallic objects via radio waves” was Christian Hülsmeyer, who in 1904 demonstrated the feasibility of detecting the presence of a ship in dense fog, but not its distance. He received Reichspatent Nr. 165546 for his pre-radar device in April, and patent 169154 on November 11 for a related amendment. He also received a patent (GB13170) in England for his “telemobiloscope” on September 22, 1904.
Nikola Tesla, in August 1917, first established principles regarding frequency and power level for the first primitive radar units. Before the Second World War, developments by the Americans (Dr. Robert M. Page tested the first monopulse radar in 1934), the Germans, the French (French Patent n° 788795 in 1934), and mainly the British who were the first to fully exploit it as a defence against aircraft attack (British Patent GB593017 by Robert Watson-Watt in 1935), led to the first real radars. In 1935, Robert Watson-Watt,a Scottish physicist, was asked by the Air Ministry to investigate the possibility of creating a “death-ray” weapon using radio waves  and received a patent for the system and funding for further development.

Hungarian Zoltán Bay produced a working model by 1936 at the Tungsram laboratory in the same vein. In 1934, Émile Girardeau, working with the first French radar systems, stated he was building radar systems “conceived according to the principles stated by Tesla”.

ALTAIR(ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar),
A long-range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR (ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar), is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein in the Pacific Ocean. It is a high-sensitivity, wide-bandwidth, coherent, instrumentation and tracking radar that is capable of collecting precise measurements on small targets at long ranges. ALTAIR supports several operating modes, including tracking and signature collection at VHF and UHF.

The war precipitated research to find better resolution, more portability and more features for the new defence technology. Post-war years have seen the use of radar in fields as diverse as air traffic control, weather monitoring, astrometry and road speed control.

In this digital age, radar technology has become firmly embedded as a law  enforcement tool. Advances in digital technology in the first decade of the 21st century sparked further improvement in signal and data processing, with the goal of developing (almost) all-digital phased-array radars. Today radar is employed by the military,in law enforcement, weather, aviation,traffic,sports and Space.

Robot-assisted surgery

Robotic- Surgery

Robot-assisted surgery is the latest development in the larger movement of endoscopy, a type of minimally invasive surgery–the idea being that less invasive procedures translate into less trauma and pain for patients. Surgery through smaller incisions typically results in less scarring and faster recovery. It’s not that robots are changing the basics of surgery. Surgeons are still cutting and sewing like they have been for decades. Robots represent a new computer-assisted tool that provides another way for surgeons to work. Continue reading “Robot-assisted surgery”

Surface Conduction Electron emitter Display (SED)

Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display (SED)

The SED technology has been developing since 1987. The flat panel display technology that employs surface conduction electron emitters for every individual display pixel can be referred to as the Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display (SED). Though the technology differs, the basic theory that the emitted electrons can excite a phosphor coating on the display panel seems to be the bottom line for both the SED display technology and the traditional cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions. When bombarded by moderate voltages (tens of volts), the electrons tunnel across a thin slit in the surface conduction electron emitter apparatus. Some of these electrons are then scattered at the receiving pole and are accelerated towards the display surface, between the display panel and the surface conduction electron emitter apparatus, by a large voltage gradient (tens of kV) as these electrons pass the electric poles across the thin slit. These emitted electrons can then excite the phosphor coating on the display panel and the image follows. Continue reading “Surface Conduction Electron emitter Display (SED)”